Bhutan

Project: The costs of adaptation in Punakha, Bhutan: Loss and damage associated with changing monsoon patterns

By: Norbu Wangdi and Koen Kusters | Status: Complete

Abstract: In Punakha District, late onset of monsoon rains and lower total amounts of monsoon rain decrease the availability of water for paddy rice irrigation. Farmers try to adapt by changing water-sharing arrangements, intensifying irrigation channel maintenance, and by shifting from rice to lower-yielding, rain-fed crops. A small minority can afford to buy gasoline pumps. For 87% of the survey respondents (N=273), the measures are not enough and/or entail extra costs. In addition, some adaptation measures are reported to cause conflicts between households and villages.